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Making peace through dialogue: A proposal of the Islamic civilization
09/13/2015
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By Dr. Abdullah bin Fahd Luhidan
Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawa and Guidance
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Conference of making peace through dialogue
Tokyo, Japan 20-21Nov.2011

Making peace through dialogue:
A proposal of the Islamic civilization
By Dr. Abdullah bin Fahd Luhidan
Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawa and Guidance
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Conference of making peace through dialogue
Tokyo, Japan 20-21Nov.2011
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In the name of Allah, The most Gracious, Most Merciful, and Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, and prayer and peace upon the Messenger of Allah Muhammad and all prophets and messengers.
Introduction:
Our world today witnesses some disorders and many problems where many of the concepts of humanity have disrupted. Peace and coexistence have been replaced with conflicts and wars between nations and the human injustice to his fellow man.
This imbalance is due to the extremism in all its forms, whether physically, ethnic, nationalist or religious. Without doubt, we can say that the followers of religions are eligible more than others to study the real reasons that foment violence, and then we can develop proposals and recommendations to address and eliminate it and spread peace, coexistence and cooperation culture in their communities and with the other communities.
Muslims with their religion and their history can contribute once again to world stability, security and peace. The prophet Muhammad (PHUH) was sent with universal humanity message, and this message is for one colour or specific race, but it is for guidance of all mankind. God says (And We have sent you (O Muhammad): not but as a mercy for the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, and all that exists).) AlAnbia: 107 .In order to teach people how to worship God alone and spread the peace and peaceful coexistence message to all mankind, God says in the Quran (O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you with God is that (believer) who has At-Taqwâ (i.e. the pious.) Verily, God is All-Knowing, All-Aware.) Alhojrat: 13..
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Islam has urged its followers to peace, and compassion not only in times of ability, and prosperity, and not limited to the time of peace, but we find Islam even in hard times when emotions are simmering and behaviour is irritating, it recommends its followers to keep away from oppression: The fourth caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib (may God be pleased with him) recommend his armies and said (if you defeated them, do not kill the fugitive or finish the wounded, do not mutilate them or expose their secrets, do not enter a house without permission, do not take their money, and do not torture women even if they damned you and your princes, and remember God, that you may receive his mercy).
The general principles of international relations in Islam
The relations between Islamic State and the other countries is based on peace, God (Allah in Arabic) says (But if they incline to peace, you also incline to it), and war is an exception as the almighty said (Permission to fight (against disbelievers) is given to those (believers) who are fought against, because they have been wronged; and surely, Allâh is Able to give them (believers) victory). Islamic war must be just against those who prevent religion, and not to force people to enter into a religion as the almighty said (There is no compulsion in religion.), it is a war to defend the principles and rights. The international relations in Islam is based on a number of principles including:
1- Human dignity God says, “And indeed We have honoured the Children of Adam, and We have carried them on land and sea, and have provided them with At-Tayyibât (lawful good things), and have preferred them above many of those whom We have created with a marked preferment.” Isra ‘: 70 .It is narrated that a Jewish funeral passed before the Noble Prophet (PBUH) and he
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stood, some of his companions said (it is a Jewish funeral), he (PBUH) replied (is not it a soul of human being).
2- Equality between people regardless their races and colours, God says, “It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He has created from him his wife (Eve)], in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her.” Al-A’raaf: 89 .Allah also said (O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women) An-Nisâ: 1 .The difference of people is not to fight each other and override some of them over some, but to know each other, God said (O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another.) Al-Rom: 22 .This is a rejection to the evolution theory, according to which some races of human beings are superior to the other, and thus it justified the phenomenon of colonialism and that the civilized man should colonize and speed up the process of promotion for the rest of the races of mankind.
3- Tolerance: Islam called for tolerance, as the Almighty said (Repel (the evil) with one which is better (i.e. God orders the faithful believers to be patient at the time of anger, and to excuse those who treat them badly) then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend.). Tolerance means to accept coexistence and co-exist peacefully, but it does not negate the right of Muslims to spread and demonstrate the right knowledge about Islam. Acknowledging the right of the followers of other religions to live peacefully does not mean not to clarify the right. In the end, Faith is an individual responsibility.
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4- Freedom: The almighty says (There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path.), and the Prophet (PBUH) forbade one of the companions to force his sons to enter Islam. When an old woman came to Omar bin al-Khattab (may God be pleased with him) he invited her to enter Islam, but she refused, Omar was afraid that she may be distressed by his request, and he called god saying “O, my God I did not mean to distress her.”
5- International cooperation: Immediately after his arrival to the city, the prophet (PBUH) concluded Al-Medina agreement between the immigrants and supporters(both Muslims) from one side and Jews on the other. The Prophet (PBUH) collaborated with the Arab tribes which were not yet in Islam to achieve a common objectives. He (PBUH) also said about Hilf al-Fudul (Alliance of the Virtuous), which was concluded before Islam (I attended at the House of Abdullah ibn Jad’aan an Alliance that I would not pleased to replace it with red camels(great wealth), if I was invited to it in Islam, I would answer it).The Arab tribes had entered into an alliance virtuous to defend the oppressed and to help needy.
6- Cultural Exchange: Sciences are divided into two types the first of which is natural and it is recognized by the human thought to realize its themes, matters, and evidences to identify the right from wrong. The second type is the traditional sciences that resort to religion. There is no doubt that the Muslims have the cultural exchanges with all cultures and civilizations in the first type of science, where it was narrated about the Prophet (PBUH) as saying, “wisdom is the goal the believer wherever he found he took it.”
7- Abiding by covenants and conventions. The almighty said (And fulfil the Covenant of God when you have covenanted, and break not the oaths after
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you have confirmed them – and indeed you have appointed God your surety). The prophet (PBUH) has abide by the terms of all treaties entered into, and refused to accept those who entered in Islam from Makka After Hudaybiyah in Al-Medina to fulfil the terms of the reconciliation.
8- Reciprocity of treatment, as the almighty said (And fight in the Way of God those who fight you, but transgress not the limits.) as He says (And if you punish (your enemy, O you believers in the Oneness of God), then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you endure patiently, verily, it is better for As-Sâbirûn (the patient)).
Dialogue is the way of peace:
Islam has clarified that the multiplicity of human cultures and the difference of people are one of the purposes of God says (And if your Lord had so willed, He could surely have made mankind one Ummah [nation or community (following one religion i.e. Islâm)] but they will not cease to disagree.). Difference does not lead to fighting, as not to enter into Islam is not a reason to fight non-Muslims. Diversity of races, colours and languages is to get acquainted and exchange ideas and experiences developed by different lifestyles, God says (and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another.).
Islamic culture has become rich by knowing the other peoples and exchanging ideas with them and take what it see right. On the other hand, many people have accepted Islam and retained their customs and traditions that are not contrary to Islam, although
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not in accordance with customs and traditions of other Muslim peoples, and that is the spaciousness of Islam and tolerance, which include everyone.
The Holy Quran has called for dialogue with others, where the almighty says (And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better), better argue is synonymous to positive and constructive dialogue.
It is stated in the Quran models of dialogue is the Prophet peace be upon him, where he says (Say (O Muhammad): “O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but God (Alone), and that we associate no partners with Him, and that none of us shall take others as lords besides God. Then, if they turn away, say: “Bear witness that we are Muslims.”).
Dialogue increases the depth of every culture with the other cultures. With the continuing dialogue and the peaceful dealing humans learn to reduce their prejudices and temper their feelings and to increase tolerance and correct misconceptions towards others, as expressed by the social thinker (Scott Peck) when he said “The total message of communication and humanitarian dialogue is summarized in peacemaking …….. The efficient communication and dialogue at the end can remove the walls and barriers that lead to misunderstanding of people with each other”.
It is not necessarily to result from dialogue a full agreement, but the main goal of dialogue is to clarify the facts and reduce intolerance based on misunderstanding and misinformation and to create the foundations of coexistence despite the differences, God says (Say (O Muhammad to non Muslims) “You will not be asked about our sins, nor shall we be asked of what you do.) Saba:25-26.
If every part insist on his opinion, it should not result to fighting, the Almighty says (And if they argue with yousay “God knows best of what you do.) Al-Hajj: 68-69 ،
The whole world is in bad need to consolidate these noble Islamic concepts at this time where the cries of the clash of civilizations are very high from the side of
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extremists on both sides of the Western and Islamic world. While the extremists call to fight the Islamic religion and to prosecute the manifestations of its spread in every way including the military ways, the extremists in the Muslim world call to use terrorism and kill innocent as a way to respond in various places of the world.
The objective dialogue among Muslims themselves and between Muslims and others will lead to a correct understanding of Islam among Muslims themselves at first and at the whole world. The keenness and seriousness of world powers in the call to dialogue and resolve differences by peaceful means will lead to the conviction among Muslims with the possibility and usefulness of the dialogue, leading to isolate extremism and this will remove one of the most important causes of tension from the world of today: Terrorism and extremism.
We have called Islam according to its ethics to coexist with the other religions no matter how different with it, because this difference is inevitable decree of the Creator of the people, the Almighty says (And if your Lord had so willed, He could surely have made mankind one Ummah [nation or community (following one religion i.e. Islâm)] but they will not cease to disagree). God has created people with different religions, colours, customs and traditions and they still so to the Day of Judgment. It was revealed in the Quran in short (Sura) chapter “Alkafirun” that confirm this overall concept, where God says “Say: to these Kâfirûn( i.e. disbelievers in God, in His Oneness, in His Angels, in His Books, in His Messengers, in the Day of Resurrection, and in Al-Qadar)! I worship not that which you worship, Nor will you worship that which I worship. And I shall not worship that which you are worshipping. Nor will you worship that which I worship. To you be your religion, and to me is mine” (Islâmic Monotheism). These differences in religion do not lead to fighting, God says (So, will you (O Muhammad) then compel mankind, until they become believers.) Yunus: 99 .But it should lead to acquaintance and cooperation.
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– Cooperation in Islam and how to achieve peace
Cooperation in Islam is a general principle, God in Sura Al-Maidah urged to cooperate in righteousness and prevent cooperation in sin, He says (Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwâ (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear God. Verily, God is Severe in punishment.) Al-Mâ’idah: 2 .The prophet Muhammad (PBUH) applied the principle of humanitarian cooperation when he came to Medina where he held a charter with the Jews based on cooperation on righteousness and to protect the virtue and prevent harm and confirmed it by covenants. He (PBUH) had held agreements with Arab tribes to further humane cooperation, regardless of whether they are Muslim tribe, or not. One of the principles of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is cooperation to support the weak. He (PBUH), when he was a young man in the twenty-fifth, attended alliance was held in Dar Abdullah ibn Jad’aan, in which the people contracted to support the weak. He (PBUH) was pleased with it and he said “I attended at the House of Abdullah ibn Jad’aan an Alliance that I would not pleased to replace it with red camels, if I was invited to it in Islam, I would answer it.”
As part of this general humanitarian cooperation which Islam calls for, cooperation with the followers of religions appears to be much bigger, as all of them are very similar. The heavenly religions, Islam, Christianity and Judaism, believe in God, his messengers, the holy books, the holy angels and the Last Day. Moral commandments established in this religions: Not to kill; not to steal; not to lie; not to commit adultery. /Haraam and Halal(forbidden and allowed) methodology indicates that there is a moral system based on spreading good tendency and interest and to resist evil tendency.
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Religions in its correct fundamentals call to faith in truth, justice and the good.
Muslims are similar with the followers of religions in general and the followers of divine religions and it is possible to cooperate to stand in front of the physical, racial and immoral currents to protect man and society from bad hatred, and diseases. The Almighty says, (It is He Who has sent down the Book (the Qur’ân) to you (O Muhammad) with truth, confirming what came before it. And He sent down the Taurât (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) A foretime, as a guidance to mankind. And He sent down the criterion [of judgement between right and wrong (this Qur’ân)]. Truly, those who disbelieve in the Ayât (proofs, evidence, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of God, for them there is a severe torment; and God is All-Mighty, All-Able of Retribution.) Al-Imran 2-4.
When one feels that the good fulfilment is required, the conflict spirit and the principle of struggle for survival that brought to the world all woes will disappear, where people think that their survival will be only by attacking the others and that is why the law of the jungle has prevailed.
After the horrors of wars, particularly World Wars I and II, the world discovered the importance of humanitarian cooperation, and established the international complex and the United Nations with its most important goals is to promote cooperation to promote international peace and security. Islamic countries are members in this international organization and are main actors in its journey towards humanitarian cooperation to achieve mutual security, peace and coexistence.
Peace in Islam and the concept of clash of civilizations
The rise of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula in the seventh century was the greatest impact to transfer the entire region from the state of ignorance, backwardness, racism,
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tribalism, and idolatry to worship one God and to remove differences between human beings. Islam divided all humanitarian concepts into two main categories: Individual relationship with His creator, and the relationship of individuals and communities toward each other (social, ethical, economic and political legislations in the domestic and international level).
Islamic law did not neglect any of these categories and stressed on the application all of it. And this is what we see clear in the biography of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the orthodox caliphs, as they stressed at every opportunity on the inseparability of these categories, so that the Muslim should accept everything from his personal behaviour to his behaviour with the surroundings environment and finally dealing with the rule (whether he is a ruler or ruled). The main point here is the “government system in Islam.” According to Islamic texts and many books in this regard, the rule in Islam is based on three main pillars: Justice, Peace and Shura.
Justice is intended to give every one his due whether it is reward or punishment regardless of colour, race or religion.
Peace means to resort to dialogue to resolve differences and not to resort to force except in cases of extreme necessity. Finally, Shura means to put the right man in the right place and to provide the opportunity for all citizens to practice their work and their activities, whether it is economic or social or scientific freely and his right to participate in decision making.
The implementation of Islamic system has a significant impact in launching the Arab-Islamic civilization and its influence on the whole world at this time, in the short period of time, of not more than thirty years, when the revelation came to the Prophet (PBUH) for the first time, the balances turned, the concepts changed, and the big states and tyrants gone forever, civilization achievements happen consecutively for which Islamic law was the main support and its origin and inspiration.
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Scholars, Muslim intellectuals and others who came under the banner of the Islamic state did not find any embarrass to take advantage of all sciences, discoveries, and thought of other people regardless of its religion or race, as it did not come out the scope of Islamic law, which ordered them to seek knowledge wherever it is.
In its long history Islamic nation had some greedy politicians and those who want authorities, prestige and influence, but the right religious awareness among all categories of people from prominent and common people, scientists, researchers, consultants, and writers, undermined any deviation of the civilization process. This peaceful position towards the others is not found in some contemporary religions and ideologies, as communism considers its acceptance is inevitable and very close to this view is the one that considers liberalism and capitalism the end of all opposing systems. These predictions make its holder narrow with the others and consider them against the movement of history, and that they are doomed to extinction, so he does not care how they are treated, he may even get rid of them to help the movement of history. Huntington alleges in his famous article clash of civilizations
(1993) that cultural and civilization differences will be a source of new conflict in international relations. In this last article, Huntington divided the cultures and civilizations of the world into eight major civilizations (although he was not sure of the eighth civilization), these civilizations are:
1- Western civilization that is controlled by the Jews – Christian values and liberal democratic systems and it is located in Western Europe and North America.
2- Confucianism civilization in China and East Asia.
3- Japanese civilization.
4- Islamic civilization in Muslim countries from Pakistan to Morocco and from Bosnia to Malaysia and from Indonesia to Sudan and Central Africa.
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5- Hinduism in India.
6- Slavic – Orthodox in Russia and Eastern Europe.
7- Latin America in Mexico and Central and South America.
8- The eighth civilization is probable Africa.
After highlighting the domination of the Western civilization on the other civilizations, Huntington said that “the challenge for the Western policy-makers is to ensure that the growing strength of the West in order to be able to repel all the others, especially Islam, the most disturbing.” In Huntington’s concept of clash of civilizations, he highlights Islam as a constant part in conflict with the West, he says
“The conflict is not likely to recede, it may even become more dangerous” he adds “Islam clashes with other civilizations in its world and on its borders such as the Serbian Orthodox in Balkans, Jews in Plastine, Hindus in India, Buddhists in Burma and Catholics in the Philippines”, and he concludes with the crucial phrase “Islam has a bloody borders.” However, Huntington encountered a heavy criticism as a result of his views , especially with the intervention of America twice in 1996 and in 1999 to stop the war in the Balkans. But the events of September 11, 20 returned things to the beginning.
King Abdullah’s initiative for dialogue among followers of religions
In June 2008, Saudi King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, called for the need to have dialogue between Muslims and Christians and Jews. King Abdullah’s message which was welcomed by Christians, Jews and Muslims leaders comes at a time when peace initiatives stalled, and the tension in the whole world escalated. King Abdullah’s initiative, inspired by Islamic principles , reflects the desire of Muslims in peaceful
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coexistence and positive interaction with the followers of other religions and different cultures. As it was a solemn appeal of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. King Abdullah has declared that his call is based on the support of senior clerics and imams in Saudi Arabia, which represents an indispensable support in a society that believes that decisions of his king are based on Islamic principles. Those principles states that all heavenly messages came down to guide people to worship God in the manner imposed by the Almighty, and to remove the scourge of poverty, injustice and racial discrimination, as it called to uphold human values that promote social justice.
King Abdullah’s initiative for a dialogue of cultures and religions is based on the following key principles:
A. To reject apartheid and to abandon the idea that there is a race superior to another. All people are equal and enjoy the same degree of humanity, that is, they do not claim to be superior to each other by race, colour or sex.
B. The diversity and differences in ethnic and human communities is normal and should result in an understanding and cooperation among them.
C. The variation and diversity of human communities, according to their origin or religion is ordered by the Almighty, and it is therefore necessary for the owners of wisdom and reason, in spite of their differences, strive to find a common ground through which they can achieve mutual respect and happiness of mankind.
D. To face common social challenges, in a world deluged in material life, and suffer from the disintegration of family relationships and the break up the ethical values , and call for cooperation to alleviate those problems, by sharing experiences that may contribute to find effective solutions.
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King Abdullah’s initiative for a dialogue of cultures and religions has been met with desirability and welcome from all world leaders. The following are some responses to that initiative:
In the speech delivered by President Barack Obama in Cairo, the U.S. president mentioned only one leader of the Islamic world, namely, King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, and said: “Faith should brings us together, and this is why we have establish service projects in America to bring together Christians, Jews and Muslims, and for that, we welcome the efforts of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah to establish a dialogue between religions.”
The Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova , in a meeting with researchers and journalists held in the public Library of King Abdul Aziz, confirmed the importance of the initiative of King Abdullah, saying, “The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a leader state and has a strong presence on the international scene as a symbol of the Islamic world, and the initiative of King Abdullah for Dialogue between cultures is an initiative that has a strong impact on the global level. I even remember a speech delivered by King Abdullah in which he argues with others in a humane manner, which made me say that His Majesty has distinctive humanity principles. ”
In a statement of Rabbi David Rosen, Director of Interreligious Affairs of the American Jewish Committee, who previously served as chief rabbi of Ireland, affirmed the importance of dialogue between religions: “Religion is mostly the problem, so it should be the key to the solution, or at least part of it, and I think that the reason for the failure of many initiatives to find a political peace is that they ignored the religious dimension.”
The importance of peace in Islam to face clash
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In the light of Islamic ideals of peace, justice and realism, we can suggest a set of means that help the international community to pass through this crisis and other problems that face humanity, these means are:
1- To give religious organizations the proper place and increase cooperation between international organizations, and religious organizations and encourage more tolerance, participation, and consultation to contain the attempts of some elements that are trying to blow up the global struggle.
2- To continue the dialogue and follow the example of the Prophet (PBUH), the orthodox caliphs and those who follow their way of the Islamic histor like Nour Elddin and Saladin, who defeated the Crusader racism with mind, tolerance and compassion, not with spear and sword.
Conclusion
In our present time, the religious institutions and their staff have a huge responsibility to stand up and address the extremism currents that call for violence, They should work through constructive and sincere cooperation with governments and international organizations to curb the extremist ideas and study the real causes and motives of extremism, violence, wars and terrorism phenomenon that has engulfed the world .
We should acknowledge that the violations of international law, human rights and infringements on the rights of peoples and its holy values, and not to comply with UN resolutions, creates an environment that encourages terrorism. The result is more serious, as these International delinquent behaviours are used as an excuse by groups of extremism and violence to justify their actions. We must recognize that in our time the influence of each country on the others has increased and grow and that the behaviours of a country affects directly and indirectly on the internal situation in
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many other countries. The world has actually reached to stage of the global village, which some of its parts are affected of what is happening in any other part.
The violence and extremism phenomenon have become a cross-border global dilemma and not specific to some people or race or religion, and this entails that all states should come together to siege and fight it, according to the Islamic principle (Help you one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwâ (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression) Al-Mâ’idah: 2 .The more justice, fairness, tolerance and dialogue expanded in the states, institutions and individuals behaviours, the more extremism is narrowed.
The efforts of Islamic institutions in Saudi Arabia against extremist ideas have become a well-known experience, as the initiatives and the support of the Government of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz and the Crown Prince Nayef bin Abdul Aziz, have the greatest impact to the success achieved in the country against terrorism and extremism and to spread the values of tolerance, dialogue and peace. The Council of Senior Religious Scholars in the Kingdom have issued many statements that condemns violence and terrorism and urges to solve international problems in the light of the principles of peace and justice ordered by Islam. The Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Endowments, Dawa and Guidance also exert huge efforts to combat extremism and promote moderation and to clarify the true image of Islam as a religion of love, peace and justice.
The call for constructive dialogue between human beings is a genuine principle in Islam, god said (Help one another in Al-Birr and At-Taqwâ (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression) Al-Mâ’idah: 2 .The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) has implemented this human cooperation principle. In the first Islamic state founded by the prophet (PBUH) in Al-Medina he entered into a convention with the Jews on cooperation, protecting virtue, preventing harm and the
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common defence to the state. He (PBUH) also concluded agreements with the Arab tribes to cooperate, regardless of whether the tribe is Muslim or non-Muslim and one of the principles of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is cooperation to support the weak. He (PBUH), when he was a young man in the twenty-fifth, attended alliance was held in house Abdullah ibn Jad’aan, in which the people contracted to support the weak. He (PBUH) was pleased with it and he said “I attended at the House of Abdullah ibn Jad’aan an Alliance that I would not pleased to replace it with red camels, if I was invited to it in Islam, I would answer it.”
As part of this general humanitarian cooperation which Islam calls for, cooperation with the followers of the other religions appears to be much bigger, as all of these religions are very similar. The heavenly religions believe in God, his messengers, the holy books, the holy angels and the Last Day and forbid murder, theft, and lying and call for a moral system based on spreading good tendency and interest and to resist evil tendency. The world is in bad need for such cooperation to build bridges between human beings and the followers of religions to resist the cries of the clash of civilizations between extremists in the world and to strive to make our world a world of peace, coexistence and social solidarity between the rich and the poor and to cooperate to the happiness of mankind.
References:
1- Ibn Hajar, Fath Al-Bari fi Sharh Saheeh Bukhari, p 94.
2- Altasamoh Waltaasob fi fikr Rowad Alnahdah p 10.
3- Alblazry, fatah Alboldan,, Crescent House, Beirut, 1403, p 139.
4- Thomas Arnold, Call to Islam, the Renaissance Library, Egypt 1970, p 81. 5- Sigrid Honkh, Arab sun shines on the West, Dar Sadir in Beirut, 1423, p 364.
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6- Khadija Abu Talla, Islam and international relations in peace and war, Dar Elmaref, Cairo 1983 AH, p 45.
7- Gustave Le Bon, the Arab civilization, the revival of Arab Heritage House, Beirut 1973.720.
8- See Tawfiq Sultan, the date of the people of book in Iraq, Darul Uloom in Riyadh, 1403, pages 70, quoting from Looks in the history of Islam, Dozy, p 411.
9- Thomas Arnold, op. cit, p 99.
10- Huntington’s clash of civilizations, Foreign Affairs magazine, United States 1993.
11- Jaafar Idris, the position of Islam from the other religions and cultures:
www.jaafaridris.com

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