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Muhammad`S Prohethood Reality Or Myth
11/11/2015
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Title: Muhammad`s Prohethood Reality or Myth
Author: Abdu-Radhi Muhammad Abdul-Mohsen
Publishing House: International Islamic Publishing House
ISBN: 978-9960-501-10-9

Many Muslim scholars have written to defend the Prophet since doing so is an honor and a duty for them. However, such efforts have been made either incidentally in answer to some orientalists and some missionaries, or in the course of speaking about the evidence of prophethood in Islam. Furthermore, most of the writings were done by non-specialists, although the nature of the topic requires the knowledge of a number of aspects of Islamic philosophy, the history of religions, and western thought. All this made the present study an obligation dictated by the imperious need to introduce Islam as the only cultural alternative that is capable of convincing today’s civilized man.

So, Was Muhammad a prophet or an imposter?
Did Moses really tell of his coming?
Did jesus order future generations to follow him?
Does the bible describe him and his message?

All these are questions that the author is going to give answers in this book.

The Evidence of Prophethood

The scholars have compiled many books about the evidence of prophethood and mentioned a lot of miracles and evidences including, the Prophet’s call for Islamic Monotheism, the signs shown by him and witnessed by his Companions, telling about the unseen that came true during his life, the prophecies about events that came true after his death, his Holy Book etc.

The First theme
The Holy Qur’an

The Holy Qur’an is the greatest verification of the prophethood of Muhammad. It is the strongest proof and most specific sign for four reasons that had never come together in any other miracle or evidence of prophethood in the history of religion and humanity. First of all, it contains the claimed Revelation and the miraculous proof of the prophethood.

The miracles of the former Prophets overpowered certain classes like the magicians at the time of Moses and the doctors at the time of Jesus. However the Holy Qur’an overpowered a whole nation including eloquent orators, poets and all. The miracle is also sent to each people according to their capacity of understanding. The miracles sent to the Children of Israel addressed their senses only, because they were known to be uncultured and uneducated. There is nothing recorded in history about a famous philosophy or a renowned literary work from them. However the Qur’an was sent to the most eloquent people who had produced remarkable literary works, and that is why they were sent a miracle suitable to their understanding and which they would know by thei atural astuteness. Lastly the miracle of the Qur’an is eternal and more apt to spread world wide and that is why it is a strong proof and more truthful.

The Qur’an proves the prophethood of Muhammad with certainty in two ways:

1. As a whole

The Arabs and non-Arabs failed to answer the Prophet’s challenge to contradict the Qur’an or produce a similar work. That challenge took a regressive form rather that a progressive one in order to show sarcasm and prove that what they had been asked to do was beyond their reach. The challenge started by asking them to produce a book similar to the whole Qur’an.
Say, If the mankind and the jinn were to come together to produce the like of this Qur’an, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.)
(Qur’an 17:88)
Since that challenge is obvious and known with certainty, then it proves that the Qur’an is clear evidence of prophethood.

2. The Details
The second way the Qur’an proves the prophethood is through studying and learning about it. This is possible only for those who can study and understand the Qur’an. Such a study reveals many aspects of the miracles of the Qur’an that cover all the branches of human knowledge. Those aspects can be summarised:

The eloquence and style
First of all, the Qur’an is a miracle of eloquence and style. This includes the eloquence of the Qur’an’s expressions in two aspects: purity of language and impressiveness. There is also the eloquence of the Qur’an in regards to meaning and this is obvious in different three aspects. In the fist, the meaning is clear from the word itself.
Second, the wording gives the exact meaning. Any addition or any omission would reduce the eloquence and not serve the meaning.
It expresses in an imaginary image the mental meaning, the psychological state, the tangible incident, the visible spectacle, the human model and man’s nature. Then that image is promoted and given life or renewable movement, thus the mental meaning becomes a movement, the psychological state becomes a spectacle, the human model becomes a living person and man’s nature becomes visible. The listener forgets that he listens to a recital and imagines himself in front of the spectacle that is being presented or an incident taking place in front of one’s eyes. The miraculous aspect of the artistical imagery in the Qur’an is that its instrument is the inanimate word and not the expressive persons, the colours or the accompanying music.

Historical events

The Qur’an also is a miracle of information. A study of the Qur’an reveals that the Qur’an narrates in extremely precise detail the stories of the forme ations and their stands vis-a-vis their Prophets. It also mentions the biographies of these Prophets and the reactions of thei ations. This information was not mentioned in the Bible and includes the stories of Hood, Salih and Shu’ayb (peace be upon them). Some of the stories may have been mentioned in the Bible in brief, but then they are shown in the Qur’an in full detail. The Qur’an also reveals information about the unseen. It gives details about the creation of the universe, Adam, the angels, and the jinn devils. It also describes the Hereafter, recompense, reward and punishment, Paradise and Hell, bliss and torment in a way that has no other Holy Book has.

The Qur’an also gives certain prophecies. It told of events of the unseen that have come true just as mentioned in the Qur’an among several examples. Al

Legislation

The Qur’anic legislation is miraculous in that it is an easy one that is compatible with the human natural disposition and is a general balance of human life valid for every time and every place. That makes the Qur’an also a proof that the prophethood of Muhammadis the last one. The miracle of legislation in the Qur’an is based on moderation. The Christians say that Moses came with justice and Jesus came with clemency, but the legislation of the Qur’an is mid­way between the two: it enjoins justice and encourages forgiveness.

Science

The scientific information in the Qur’an suits the nature of our time which is characterised by scientific achievement to such an extent that science has now become one of the strongest pillars of survival and the most effective weapon in today’s struggle. The subjects of the Qur’an’s scientific miracle include astronomy, medicine, geology, botany, zoology, biology, economics, commerce, history, civilisation, maritime studies and more. It is now confirmed that the Qur’an does not contain any statement that can be scientifically criticised today according to the witness of Maurice Bucaille who is the author of The Qur ‘an, Bible and Science. Another author states, Muhammad has left for the world a Book which is the sign of eloquence and the record of morals. A Holy Book in which there is no contradiction with contemporary scientific discoveries and natural rules. There is no recent scientific fact that contradicts the basis of Islam. Coherence between the teachings of the Holy Qur’an and the natural laws is complete. (Ahmed Izzet, Religion and Science, p. 24) In his encyclopaedia The Grand Religions, the religious historian Ninion Smart says that Islam and science support each other and that there is no contradiction between the two.

The creation of the universe

In the Qur’an there is not one successive narration about the creation of the world, but various aspects of this process are discussed on different occasions according to the following information.
a) The stages of creation
b) The method of creation
c) The nature of creation

Astronomy

b) The nature of the celestial bodies
c) The movement of the sun and the moon
d) The positions of the stars:

The earth

a) Water and sea circulation
b) Earth topography
c) Mineral wealth
d) The atmospheric layers

The creation of man

a) Fertilization with a very small quantity of fluid
b) The nature of the fertilizing fluid
c) The ovum settles in the womb
d) The development of the embryo

The Second Theme:
The Miracles

The miracles of the Prophet Muhammad are subject to the attacks of disbelievers. These attacks follow two trends. The first is that a number of these miracles (those similar to the miracles of former Prophets) was taken by Muslims from the Holy Bible and attributed to Muhammadeither as they were or with some modification. It is beyond question that this is contradictory to the date of the translation of the Holy Bible into Arabic. The Religions’ Encyclopaedia confirms that the oldest Arabic translation of the Bible had appeared in the tenth century. G. Graf mentions in his History ofthe Christian Arabic Literature that the oldest text of the Holy Bible translated into Arabic dates back to the eleventh century.

Also it has to be taken into account that the Prophet’s Sunnah (traditions, legal ways) has been written and methodologically classified since the middle of the eighth century. This can be found in the books of scholars like ‘Abdul Raziq (211 H), ‘Abdullah ibn al-Mubarak (181 H), Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah (197 H), Sufyan ath-Thawri (161 H), Wakee’ ibn al-Jarrah (197 H) and others.

The second criticism is that these miracles are superstitions, legends, and lies created by the Muslims as a result of the domination of illusion and imagination that emanated from the desire to interpret the universe from their minds in the absence of religion. There is no doubt that this invective is clear evidence of the ignorance of the person responsible in regards to the nature of Islam in general, and the means of receiving the news and collecting them, in particular. The most important of Islam’s characteristics is that all its facts and faiths are received from Alla through revelation.

In regards to how the Muslims received and collected the information, an unprecedented method of precision and verification was followed; particularly those relating to the Qur’an and the Sunnah. The Muslims still know very well all the Qur’an and Sunnah told by the Prophet, the person who heard them, the occasion, the followers who heard the Prophet’s companions narrating that, those who received the news and information from the followers, and the degrees of precision and honesty in translation. The miracles told by the Muslims as evidence of the prophethood of Muhammad were transmitted by a large number of reliable Muslims and recorded in the books of the scholars of the various schools in verified transmitted information that leads to certainty.

The miracles of the Qur’an have a great value not only as an evidence of prophethood but also as a necessary answer to some people of the scripture who say that there is nothing miraculous in the Qur’an that supports the prophethood of Muhammad.. There are actually two kinds of miracles in the Qur’an. First there are certain miraculous events including but not limited to:
The splitting of the moon. This was one of the greatest astronomical miracles. The people of Makkah requested the Prophet show them a miracle, and so he showed them the splitting of the moon. This sign in particular was subjected to great criticism. The deniers of this sign said that it could not happen and that had it taken place, the whole universe would have seen it. However, this criticism can be answered by the following points.
First Qur’an promised the Prophet that Allah is a Sufficient Protector for him against the scoffers of his message. Five of the chiefs of Quraysh used to harm the Prophet; al-Waleed ibn al-Mugeerah, al-Aswad ibn al-Muttalib, al-Aswad ibn Abd Yaghooth, al-‘As ibn Wa’il and al-Harith ibn al-Talatilah. Allah says:

(Therefore proclaim openly [Allah’s Message — Islamic Monotheism] that which you are commanded, and turn away from al-Mushrikoon[polytheists, idolaters, and disbelievers]. Truly! We will suffice you against the scoffers.) (Qur’an 15:94-95)

After the verse was revealed, al-Aswad ibn al-Muttalib passed by the Prophet who threw a green leaf towards his face. The man became blind and started hitting his head against a wall. Al-Aswad ibn Abd Yaghooth passed and the Prophet pointed to his stomach. Afterwards, the man fell sick with dropsy and died from it. Al-Waleed passed by and the Prophet pointed to a mark ofan old injury on the man’s heel, and the wound started bleeding and caused the man’s death. Al-‘As passed by the Prophet who pointed to his foot, and a thorn penetrated the man’s foot causing his death. Al-Harith passed by the Prophet who pointed to the man’s head, and the man’s head was then filled with pus which caused his death.

Second: Prophecies about the future
There are numerous prophecies, but only a few can be examined here. One of the best known prophecies was given about the victory of the Romans. Allah says:
Alhe Romans have been defeated. In the nearest land [Syria, Iraq, Jordan and Palestine], and they, after their defeat, will be victorious. Within three to nine years. The decision ofthe matter, before and after [these events] is only Allah’s [before the defeat of the Romans by the Persians, and after the defeat ofthe Persians by the Romans]…) (Qur’an 30:2-4)

Seven years later this prophecy became true, and the Romans defeated the Persians.

The Third Theme:
The Prophesied Glad Tidings

The prophecies (glad tidings) are the predictions and information given by the former Prophets and Messengers in their Books about the advent of the Prophet Muhammad These prophecies only have value as evidence of Muhammad’s prophethood to the Jews and Christians because other people do not believe in the Books containing that information. However, these glad tidings are important to refute the allegation of the people of the scripture that the Bible did not give prophecies about Muhammad.

Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write [i.e. Muhammad] whom they find written with them in the Tawrdt [Torah] and the Injeel[Gospel]…) (Qur’an 7:157)

The Qur’an also states that the people of the scripture know the Prophet Muhammad (5M) very well because of his signs and allusions made about him in their Books. Allah says:

Those to whom We gave the Scripture [Jews and Christians] recognise him [Muhammad or the Ka’bah at Makkah] as they recognise their sons…) (Qur’an 2:146)

The glad tidings of the illiterate Prophet in the former Books are also important because they are evidence of the knowledge of the unseen which Allah revealed only to His chosen Prophets. In addition, they constitute an obligation for the Jews and Christians to believe in the Prophet because the Prophets that had preceded him knew the sign of Muhammad’s prophethood and informed their followers about his arrival.

There are certain points that should be taken into account while considering this issue. To begin with we have not received all that was told by the former Prophets, and this is known with certainty from our knowledge about the way in which the Holy Bible was collected transmitted and translated. A relevant point is also that copies and translations of the Holy Bible in our time are not unified nor had they been so at the time when the Muslim scholars discovered the prophecies.

The next point to take into consideration is that the differences in the various copies and translations of the Holy Bible also led to a difference between the Muslim scholars about whether the Prophet Muhammad is mentioned in the Bible with his name or with his qualities and characteristics.
Since they are implicit and not explicit, then deciphering these signs requires interpretation. This is normally the point of difference particularly when the objectives and religions are different.
In conclusion, the former Prophets have been given glad tidings of the Prophet Muhammad in many places in their Books. They are classified in different ways and one example of will be given of each.

1. The name of the Prophet

The name of the Prophet was indicated by the use of the word Parqaleeta that is mentioned in four places in the Gospel of John. Jesus said, If you love me, keep my commandments, and I will pray to the father and He shall give you another Paraqleeta that he may abide with you forever. The spirit of the truth and the universe cannot receive him, because they do not see him nor recognise him, but you know that he will abide with you and be among you. (John 14:15)

In another verse, Jesus said, But the Paraqleeta, the Holy Spirit that the father will send in my name, will teach you everything and will remind you of all that I have said to you. (John 14:26, 27)

Jesus also said, And when the Paraqleeta comes that I send to you from the father, the spirit of the truth which proceeds from the father, he shall testify for me. And you also shall bear witness because you have been with me from the beginning. (John 15:26), 27)
In the last verse found in John, Jesus said, It is better for you that I go; for if I do not go away, Paraqleeta will not come unto you; but if I depart, I will send him unto you. And when he comes, he will reprove the world of sin, and approve righteousness and judgement. When he, the spirit of the truth, has come, he will guide you to the whole truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that he speaks; and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine, and he shall show it unto you. (John 16:7-14)
Paraqleeta is a form of the Greek word Parakletos which means the most glorified, the most famous, or the one who is praiseworthy. That is the word for a quality of a prophet that was to come after Jesus and about whom he spoke. These qualities conform to the Prophet of Islam, and the meaning of that word is the same as that of the word Ahmad in Arabic. According to the modem Catholic translation, the word Paraqleeta was translated to advocator and consoler in the translation of the Protestants published by William Wattson in London, 1857. The Christian fathers, who issued a modem translation of the New Testament in 1989, commented on the text of John. They said, In the Greek language Parakletos is derived from the legal language. It means the one called to defend an accused person. Therefore, the meaning is ‘advocate’, ‘helper’, and ‘defender’. Therefore accordingly many other synonymous words appeared such as consoler and intercessor.

2. The qualities of the Prophet

There are more prophecies in the Book of Isaiah. One verse reads, This is My slave that I support, and My choice about whom I am satisfied. I made My spirit on him and he makes My Justice manifest to the nations. He neither shouts nor raises his voice and his voice is not heard in the streets. He propagates the truth with honesty and will not forsake it until it prevails on earth and for his Shari’ah (laws) the lands are waiting. Ibn al-Qayyim commented on this verse and said, Who else does this description suit but Muhammad ibn ‘Abdullah. If all mankind on earth gathered together, they would not be able to mention another Prophet who had all these qualities; qualities which will remain in our Prophet’s nation until the Day of Resurrection. He then begins to justify and show how this verse is consistent with the Prophet Muhammad. First he points out that the reference to my slave in the verse matches Allah’s address to Muhammad in the Qur’an:

“Blessed is He Who sent down the criterion [of right and wrong, i.e. this Qur’an] to His slave [Muhammad], that he may be a Warner to the Alameen [mankind and jinn].)
(Qur’an 25:1)

((Glorified [and Exalted] is He [Allah] [Above all that (evil) they associate with Him] Who took His slave [Muhammad] for a journey by night from al-Masjid al-Hardm [at Makkah] to al-Masjid al-Aqsd [in Jerusalem]…)
(Qur’an 17:1)
The verse states that he is the chosen and that also conforms to the Prophet’s saying: Allah has chosen the Kina’nah from the children of Ishmael, and the Quraysh from Kina’nah, and then the Bani Hashim from Quraysh, and has chosen me from Bani Hashim. The claim that he does not shout or laugh loudly corresponds with what ‘A’ishah said about Muhammad: Allah’s Messenger was never seen laughing loudly, he only smiled.
The verse also states, I made My spirit on him. These words reflect what Allah says about Muhammad:
“And thus We have sent to you [O’ Muhammad] Rooh [a Revelation, and a Mercy] of Our Command…)
(Qur’an 42:52)
In addition, the Prophet is the only one that can claim that the description, he makes My Justice manifest to the nations and prove that it corresponds to him. Allah says to Muhammad :

So unto this [religion of Islam alone and this Qur’an] then invite [people] [O’ Muhammad], and stand firm [on Islamic Monotheism by performing all that is ordained by Allah [good deeds], and by abstaining from all that is forbidden by Allah [sins and evil deeds], as you are commanded, and follow not their desires but say: I believe in whatsoever Allah has sent down of the Book [all the holy Books, — this Qur’an and the Books of the old from the Tawrdt (Torah), or the Injeel (Gospel) or the Pages of Ibraheem (Abraham)] and I am commanded to do justice amongst you…)
(Qur’an 42:15)
Finally, the statement he propagates truths with honesty conforms to what Allah says in the Qur’an:

O’ Prophet [Muhammad]! Verily, We have sent you as a witness, and a bearer of glad tidings, and a Warner. And as one who invites to Allah [Islamic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allah (Alone)] by His Leave, and as a lamp spreading light [through your instructions from the Qur’an and the Sunnah — the legal ways of the Prophet].)
(Qur’an 33:45-46)

3. The place of revelation of the Prophet
The Lord (Lord) came from Sinai, shone from Sa’ir and glared from Faran. (Deuteronomy 33:2)

Faran is Makkah. This is known because the Torah says about Ishmael: Allah has been with the lad while he grew up and settled in the wilderness. He was a bowman who settled in the wilderness of Faran and then took a wife from Egypt. (Genesis 21:20,21) ‘AH ibn Raban at-Tabari believes that Lord here means the Prophet who came out of Faran. The Arabs used the word Rabb (Lord) to refer to Allah but it also can mean man in a phrase like the Lord of the house. As-Samaw’al says almost the same thing. He states, Making reference to these places, which were the locations of Prophets, require the sensible people to look for a sound and reliable interpretation. Those who studied the prophecies and commented on them interpreted that Allah has sent down the Torah in Sinai, the Gospel in Sa’ir and the Qur’an to the Prophet Muhammad in the wilderness of Faran (Makkah).
Ibn Taymiyah said that the revelation of the Torah was like the dawn; the Gospel was like the shining of the sun and the Qur’an was like a clear sun in the middle of the sky. That is why the Prophet Muhammad is called a lamp spreading the light imperiously needed by mankind. He also associated this prophecy with what Allah mentioned in the Qur’an; by the fig and olive, by Mount Sinai, by this city of security… (Soorah at-Teen 1-3) Allahswears by the fig and olive referring to the land where they grow (Sham) and where the Gospel was revealed. Then He swears by Mount Sinai; the Mount where Allah spoke directly to Moses, and He swears by the secured city Makkah where Abraham settled his son Ishmael and his mother. Ibn Taymiyah also said that the order in which these places are mentioned is a chronological one in the Torah, whereas it is an order of preference in the Qur’an.
It can also be said that the prediction of a coming revelation in Sa’ir is not restricted only to Jesus because most of the Prophets sent to the Children of Israel came from Palestine. This was mentioned in the Old Testament and the Qur’an and the contemporaries of Jesus came from there like Zachariya and John. Similarly, Palestine was not restricted to the revelation of the Gospel alone since the Psalms of David were revealed there too.

4. The advent of the Prophet

The Lord says to Moses, I will make them a Prophet from among their brothers, like you, and I will make my speech in his mouth. He says to them all that I command him. Any man who does not follow the speech he says in My Name will be punished. (Deuteronomy 18:18, 19) This prophecy is consistent with the Prophet Muhammad for several reasons.

1.It states that the expected Prophet is from the brethren of the Children of Israel, and Muhammad is the only one who falls under this condition.
2.The expected Prophet is like Moses and the similarity between Moses and Muhammad are many.

—Thei ations were similar. The Children of Israel used to be scattered in Egypt and subjected by its kings. Moses gathered them and they became a nation who managed to establish a kingdom. This is similar to the case of Arabs before Islam. They used to be different tribes fighting each other. Islam united them and they dominated the world.
—Their personalities were the same. They were both leaders who were obeyed by their followers and both were called Allah’s slave.
—Their laws were comparable. Both systems included civil policies, required purity for worship, and taught major ritual washing in the event of major ritual impurity such as woman’s menses and childbirth. They also embrace the banning of pork meat, sacrifices to idols, eating dead animals and blood. They both command punishment for adultery, and both call for holy war (Jihad).
—The Jews and Christians reject this as a prophecy for Muhammad; the Jews apply it to Joshua and the Christians apply it to Jesus. However this can be proved false based on the following points:
—Both Joshua and Jesus were from the Children of Israel and not from their brethren. The Torah states that there was no Prophet after Moses like him from the Children of Israel.
—Neither one of them was similar to Moses. In regards to Joshua it is important to point out that he was not a Prophet, he had no general law but was subject to the rules of the law of Moses, and he was a contemporary of Moses whereas the prediction was for someone to come after Moses. As far as Jesus was concerned, they were not similar because Moses was not considered a god by his followers, but a slave. According to the Christian faith Jesus was killed and crucified as a saviour and Moses was not. Also he was cursed after his death, and Moses was not. Jesus went to Hell after his death to save the tormented and he was born of a mother without a father and had neither a wife nor children. Moses had a mother and father as well as a wife and children. Jesus’ Shari’ah (law) does not include ordained punishments, rules of major ablution, purity, prohibited foods and drinks like that of Moses. Jesus was not an obeyed leader of his people like Moses was.
Finally, there is prediction concerning the description of the nation of Muhammad in Isaiah, Book 42: I tell you of the news to come. Chant a new song for the Lord, a glorification from the remotest parts of earth. Oh, explorers of the seas and what is in them! O’ islands and their inhabitants! The wilderness and its towns and the pens inhabited by Qaydar should raise their voices. The people of the rock should cry from the tops of the mounts to glorify the Lord and tell about his praises in the islands.
Qaydar is a Semitic name meaning the capable or the black. It is a name given to Ishmael’s second bom who was the ancestor to the most famous Arab tribe and from his name their country was called the Land of Qaydar. Ibn al-Qayyim therefore asks the following questions. Who are the dwellers of the wilderness, other than the nation of Muhammad? Who is Qaydar other than the son of Ishmael, the Prophet’s grandfather? Who were the inhabitants of the caves and tops of the mounts, but the Arabs? And who is the one whose fame has remained forever?
Rahmatullah explained this prophecy and showed how it is consistent with the nation of the Prophet Muhammad. He said, The new glorification is the new method, Muhammad’s Shari’ah (law), and crying from the top of mounts refers to the special rituals performed during Hajj when millions of people shout, ‘Here I am, oh my Great God, answering your call.’ It is a well known fact that the earth (land, sea and islands) has never been filled with glorification and praises until after the advent of Muhammad (jS). The whole earth was purified for his prayers and a mosque for him. Now the Muslims perform prayer five times a day all over the world.

The Fourth Theme:
The Prophet’s Conduct and Morals

The evidence of prophethood in Islam stands alone in this theme. Never before the advent of Muhammad was moral perfection used as evidence of prophethood. There are various reasons for that moral perfection that can be considered as proof. First of all, it is the Holy Qur’an which praises the Prophet’s morals. Allah says: And Verily, you [O’ Muhammad] are on an exalted [standard of] character.) (Qur’an 68:4)

The Prophet’s good morals and conduct made his Companions gather around him. Allah says:… And had you been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you…) (Qur’an 3.159)
In addition, the confirmation of the Prophet’s perfect morals and conduct answers the criticisms of his accusers that he had bad morals that made him unqualified to have the honour of Prophethood. The Prophet’s moral perfection was the strongest evidence that obliged many people to believe in Muhammad, even before they witnessed a tangible miracle. Examples are Khadeejah (the Prophet’s first wife), Abu Bakr, ‘Ali and others (may Allah be pleased with them all).

1.The perfection of qualities

The Prophet had a smiling face that made him loveable to the people who submitted to him and followed him. He was also wise, discerning, and patient. Severe trials used to make him stronger. He had no interest in the worldly pleasures. He was the example of modesty. He was kind to all, and he used to walk in the markets and sit on the ground. He could only be distinguished from his Companions by his shyness and silence.
One of the Prophet’s most honourable attributes was his extreme tolerance. The Arabs showed him hatred and animosity but that made him even kinder and more merciful. He never showed wrath or took vengeance unless it was for Allah’s sake. He fulfilled the promise and kept the covenant.

2. The virtues of the Prophet’s speech
1.He had tremendous wisdom and such comprehensive knowledge that it surprised his contemporaries.
2.He had the strong ability to learn by heart and never forgot one single part of his Message.
3.He explained his laws and teachings with very clear proofs.
4.He impelled his people to have virtues and good conduct, and forbade jealousy, hatred and all that is abominable.
5.He gave a clear answer whenever asked and a strong proof whenever he argued.
6.He kept his tongue from altering or perverting speech, and he became known as truthful.
7.He expressed what he wanted in a perfect manner.
8.He was the most eloquent person whose words were clear and lucid.

3. The virtues of the Prophet’s deeds
1.He had the best manners.
2.He combined at the same time showing mercy (for followers) and instilling awe (in the opposition).
3.His Shari’ah (law) is a just one; moderate since it falls between excess and negligence.
4.He took from this world just what is sufficient.
5.He explained his teachings and the rule of worship in such a clear manner that no law other than his is required.
6.He combined an invitation to the religion with arguments with his readiness to fight the enemies until he was victorious.
7.He was courageous when fighting and had a strong desire to rescue the needy and the frightened.
8.He showed exemplary generosity.
It is noteworthy that considering the Prophet’s conduct and moral as an evidence of prophethood is not limited to the believers from the Arabs. The most famous story in this respect is the dialogue between Abu Sufyan and the Roman king Heraclius. Ibn ‘Abbas
narrated this story from Abu Sufyan who told it to him personally.
I set out during the truce that had been concluded between me and Allah’s Messenger While I was in Sham, Duhya al-Kalbi brought the letter of Muhammad to the governor of Basra who forwarded it to Heraclius. Heraclius said, ‘Is there anyone from the people of this man who claims to be a Prophet?’ The people replied that there was. So along with some other Qurayshi men I was called and we entered upon Heraclius and were seated in front of him. Then he asked, ‘Who amongst you is the nearest relative to the man who claims to be a Prophet?’
I (Abu Sufyan) replied, T am the nearest relative to him from amongst the group.’ So they made me sit in front of him and made my companions sit behind me. Then he called upon his interpreter and told him, ‘Tell them (Abu Sufyan’s companions) that I am going to ask him (Abu Sufyan) regarding that man who claims to be a Prophet. So if he tells me a lie, they should contradict him (instantly)!’ By Allah, had I not been afraid that my companions would consider me a liar, I would have told lies.
Heraclius then told his interpreter to ask me, ‘What is his (that is the Prophet’s) family status amongst you?’ I said, ‘He belongs to a noble family from among us.’ Herclius asked, ‘has anyone from among you claimed the same thing?’ I said, ‘No. Heraclius then asked, ‘Was any of his ancestors a king?’ I said, ‘No.’ He asked, ‘Do the nobles follow him or the poor people? I said, It is the poor who follow him. He asked, ‘Is the number of his followers increasing or decreasing?’ I said, ‘They are increasing.’ He asked, ‘Does anyone renounce his religion (that is Islam) after embracing it?’ I said. ‘No.’ He asked, ‘Did you ever accuse him of telling lies before he began to say what he has said?’ I said, ‘No.’ He asked, ‘Does he ever betray?’ I said, ‘No, but now we are away from him in this truce and we do not know what he will do in it.’ Abu Sufyan added, By Allah, I was not able to insert in my speech a word (against him) except that.
He asked, ‘Did you fight with him?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ He asked, ‘How was your fighting with him?’ I said, ‘The fighting between us was undecided and victory was shared by him and us in turns. He inflicts casualties upon us and we inflict casualties upon him.’
What does he command you to do? I said, He commands us to worship Allah alone and not to associate any other with Him. He orders us to leave what our fathers believed in, and he commands us to pray, be honest, be ascetic and good to our kin.
Then Heraclius told me the following through his interpreter. T first asked you about his family status amongst you. Verily all Messengers come from the noblest family among their people. Then I asked you whether anyone had said this statement before him; and you denied that. Thereupon I thought, if somebody had said that statement before him, then I would have said that he was but a man copying some sayings said before him. Then I asked you whether any of his ancestors was a king, and you denied that. Thereupon I thought that if one of his forefathers had been a king, I would have said that he was seeking to rule the kingdom of his forefathers. Then I asked whether you have ever accused him of telling lies before he said what he said, and your reply was in the negative. Therefore, I took for granted that a man who did not tell a lie about others would never tell a lie about Allah Then I asked you regarding his followers, whether they were the noble or the poor among the people, and you said that they were only poor (who follow him). In fact, such are the followers of Messengers. Then I asked you whether his followers were increasing or decreasing. You claimed that they were increasing, and that is the way of true faith till it is complete. Then I asked you whether anyone of his followers had renounced his religion after embracing it being displeased with it, and you denied that. Such is faith when its delight enters the heart and mixes with it completely. Then I asked you whether he has ever betrayed anyone; you claimed that he had never betrayed. Indeed, Messengers never betray. Then I asked you what he ordered you to do and you said that he ordered you to offer prayers and not to associate any other with Him and that he forbade you from the worship of the idol and he ordered you to be chaste and honest! If whatever you have said is true, then his kingdom will expand to what is under my feet! I had known that he [that is the Prophet (j||)] was going to appear, but I never thought that he would be from among you. If I were certain that I could reach him, I would like to meet him and if I were with him I would wash his feet.’
Then Heraclius asked for the letter of Allah’s Messenger to read it. The following letter was read.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(This letter is) from Muhammad the slave and messenger of Allah, to Heraclius the sovereign of Byzantine.
Peace be upon him who follows the right path. Now then, I call you to embrace Islam. Embrace Islam and you will be saved (from Allah’s punishment). Embrace Islam and Allah will give you a double reward. If you reject this, you will be responsible for the sins of the Arians (people of his kingdom). Allah says: O’ people of the scripture [Jews and Christians]! Come to a word that is just between us and you, that we worship none but Allah [Alone] and not associate others with Him and not to take each other as Lords. If they renounce this, then say: We testify that we are Muslims).
Abu Sufyan continued, When he finished reading the letter, voices grew loude ear him and there was a great hue and cry and we were ordered to go out. Abu Sufyan added, While coming out I said to my companions, the matter of Ibn Abu Kabshah [that is Muhammad has became so prominent that even the King ofthe Romans is afraid of him. So I continued to believe that Allah’s Messenger would be victorious, till Allah made me embrace Islam.
Such were the morals of the Prophet Muhammad and such were the testimonials of his enemies before his friends.

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